Tughril Beg was the first leader of Seljuks who gathered and united the whole Muslim world under one flag of Islam. His full name is Rukn-ad-Din Abu-Talib Mohammad Toghril Beg Ibn Mikail. He was born in 990 C.E. His father, Mikail died in his early childhood. Also, his grandfather passed away when he reached his young age. Then Seljuks accepted Tughril Beg and Chaghri Beg as their leader. Both the brothers had a better understanding and they governed their emperor for thirty years. And in this period, they did not have any conflict with others and that’s why they didn’t attack or invade any region.
It was the age when Muslims ruled in the whole world. In Merv, Sassanians were the rulers. While in South Africa, Fatimids had its dominance. When the Sassanians’ power became unstable, then the regime of Ghaznavids began. At this time, Muslims domination also diminished. In such a situation, Tughril Beg raised and he united the large territory in the name of Islam during the 24 years of his kingdom. And he maintained the dignity and elegance of the Islamic Caliphate.
In 429 A.H in accordance with 1037 C.E, Tughril Beg fought a war in Surkhaiz battlefield and they got the victory. The main reason for this victory was the excellent abilities and potential of Seljuks. It was such a great nation whose every child had skills in the arts of warfare. The leaders of this war were very brave and themselves had dealt and encountered enemies. In 429 A.H, after occupying Nishapur, almost 4 years proved very important and sensitive for Tughril Beg because he faced rebellion from every side. After crushing the rebellion, they conquered Khorasan.
When Tughril Beg triumphed Khorasan, then he gathered his all family members and taught them mutual compassion and took the promise of being united. After the conquest of Khorasan, Tughril Beg wrote a letter to Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad. After reading this letter, Caliph not even granted the leadership of Khorasan but also gave Tughril Beg the title of Rukn-ad-Din. Later they occupied Tirjan and Tabaristan. After this, Tughril Beg moved towards North where he helped the campaign of Chaghri Beg in Khwarazm. Seljuks got victory in the war that occurred in the period of 434 A.H in accordance with 1042 C.E.
In 440 A.H accordingly with 1048 C.E, Ghaz Turkmenistan attacked the regions of Tughril Beg from the Merv riverside. Tughril Beg took a great step and send back a campaign of Seljuks in the leadership of Ibrahim. While Ghaz Turkmenistan entered Armenia and conquered Melaz Gard situated on the border of Rome and Algeria. And then they entered Rome and destroyed Trawzan.
Romans encountered back but Ghaz Turkmenistan got the victory. The king of Anjaz was also arrested. Even Constantinople was at 15 days mileage when Caesar Rome caught the sight of this situation. He sent his delegation immediately which offered gifts to Tughril Beg. And requested them to stop the Seljuks proceeding towards Rome and both the nations contracted each other. Tughril Beg Accepted the recommendation of Caesar Rome and stopped the Seljuks heading towards Rome. Even he ordered to release the king of Anjaz. In order to pay the attributes due to the compassionate behavior of Tughril Beg, Caesar Rome permitted to build a mosque in Constantinople. On one hand, Seljuks received booty as a result of this war but on the other hand, their political effects were reaching Azerbaijan, Armenia and Western Euphrates.
In 447 A.H in accordance with 1055 C.E, Tughril Beg announced that he is going to offer Hajj. Then during this period, many people tried to revolt against Abbasid Caliphate. The Caliph ordered Tughril Beg to take action against rebels. Tughril Beg moved from Hamdan and Bivouacked in the border of Iraq and Kurdistan. Caliph wanted that Seljuks would come to Iran. Then Tughril Beg demanded the permission of entering the Capital of Caliph which was accepted heartily. High authorities and great leaders welcomed Seljuks.
In 447 A.H on 25th Ramzan, Seljuks reached Baghdad and met with Caliph. At that time, Tughril Beg had the dominion from Khorasan to Baghdad. In 1056 C.E, some revolts occurred again. And therefore, Tughril Beg moved from Baghdad to Mosul where a person Basasari was engaged in temptation. In 449 A.H, Tughril again came to Abbasid Caliph and a special meeting was arranged for them. Caliph ordered to present and wear the crown to Tughril Beg.
After this, Tughril Beg tangled in many internal disputes and by taking the advantage of it, Basasari once again revolted against Tughril Beg. So. Tughril Beg moved to Baghdad with his campaign and the caliph himself welcomed him and gave him a sword. The revolt of Basasari was ended soon. Then, There was peace in the Islamic state and the same dignity of the caliphate was restored.
In 452 A.H, Tughril’s wife died and in the next year, he sent a message to Caliph that he wanted to marry his daughter so that they could also have belongings with the Hashim family. It was the honor of Caliph. He agreed and married his daughter Seyyedeh Fatima with Tughril Beg.
Death & Succession
In 453 A.H in accordance with 1063 C.E, Tughril moved towards Ray where he suffered illness. It was said that the weather was very hot and due to high temperature, Tughril preferred to live outside Ray, in a small village that had a moderate temperature as compared to Ray. But Tughril Beg died in 1073 CE in Ray, Iran. He was succeeded by Alp Arslan.
Tughril Beg was a person with extraordinary abilities. During his 26 years of dominion, he united and organized the brutal nation and made them the leader of the whole Islamic world. It is really appreciable.