Sultan Murad I (3rd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire)
Murad I, the son of Sultan Orhan Ghazi, was born in 1326 AD. He became the third ruler of the Ottoman Empire in 1360 AD. Murad I was a brave freedom fighter, kind and a disciplined ruler. In the reign of Murad I, the rank of the Ottoman Empire increased rapidly. As the Murad I took the throne, he took steps to spread the boundaries of his empire in Asia Minor (Anatolia) and Europe at the same time.
In 762 Hijri, about 1360 AD, the Ottoman’s army conquered the Philipopolis and Adrianople cities in Europe. Adrianople was renamed to Edirne. This city was of great importance in Europe. After Constantinople, it was the second biggest city of Byzantine’s rule. In 768 Hijri, about 1366 AD, this city was made the capital of the Ottoman’s Empire by Murad I, after which the capital of this Great Ottoman’s Empire was shifted from Asia to Europe. Murad I divided the Empire into two provinces named Anatolia (Asia) and Rumelia (Europe) on the basis of administration tasks. In 1363 AD, the Trace city was conquered. In 1366 AD, the Christians army under the supervision of Emrid 6th helped the Byzantine’s and took over the Gallipoli city which was conquered in the reign of Sultan Orhan Ghazi. But exactly the next year, the Turks conquered this city again.
Murad I kept on conquering the European cities one after the other, even his army went on his way to conquer the Macedonia city. Europeans, the Balkans, and the Christians including Serbia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and the Byzantine’s Empire formed an army consisting of 60,000 persons. But the Ottoman’s commander, Lala Sahin Pasha with his comparatively small army, defeated them near the river Maritsa. In the result of this victory, the Empires of Taraqia and Macedonia were conquered and the Muslim reached in Sothern Bulgaria and Eastern Serbia. The countries and the cities of the Byzantine’s Empire and also of Bulgaria and Serbia were conquered by the ottoman’s like the leaves of the trees falls in the Autumn season one after the other. After seeing these victories, the rulers of Bulgaria, Serbia, and the Byzantine’s empire agreed to pay the annual tax to Murad I.
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In 1385 AD, the capital of present Bulgaria, Sofia included in the Ottoman’s Empire. In 1386 AD, the city of Serbia, Nis was conquered. On the other hand, Sultan Murad I expanded his Empire to Tokat in Anatolia. In 1389 AD, Sultan Murad I defeated the mutual army of Christians of the Balkans including Northern Serbia, Bosnia, and Bulgaria in the first battle of Kosovo.
After the victory in this battle, a cold-injured soldier from the battlefield excuses to take an oath on the hand of Sultan Murad. When he came nearer to Sultan, he attacked Sultan with his poisoned knife, because of which Sultan got severely injured. On 15th Shaban, 791 Hijri, about 8th August 1389 AD, Sultan left this world while wearing the crown of martyrdom.
Sultan Murad I was the first ruler who converted the Ottoman’s tribe to the Ottoman’s Empire for the first time. In 1383 AD, he got the title of “Sovereign”(Hudavendigar). Sultan Murad ruled the Ottoman Empire with such wisdom and skill that no one was able to compete him at that time.
A proper pay scale was introduced for “Janissary” (new soldier). Parliament House was made for the governmental and military systems. Changes were made in the tax system because of which for the first time in the history of Ottomans, the income was greater than the expenses. Sultan Murad I got the sovereignty of 95,000 sqkm from heredity. And when the Sultan Murad was martyred, the area of the Ottoman’s empire was 500,000 sqkm. Its means he added 5 times more in the area of the Ottoman’s Empire.
The body of the Sultan Murad I was protected and brought to Bursa, where they were buried. While a tomb was made in Kosovo at the place of his martyrdom by burying the inner parts of his body, which is famous with the name of “Mashed-i-Hudavendigar” and still present in Kosovo.