Siege of Bursa 1317-1326 | First City Captured by the Ottoman Empire

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Background

After a decisive victory in the Battle of Bapheus against the Byzantines in 1302 CE, Ottoman got a state in the form of an Empire. In the leadership of Osman Ghazi, Ottomans started conquering the neighborhood areas. Muslims from other areas started migrating towards those areas which were under the control of the Ottoman Empire. In this way, a huge force of warriors and scholars gathered under the flag of the empire. On the other side, Byzantines were planning to stop Osman from entering into Europe to expand the empire westward. But no one was able to stop Osman at that time.

He continued pressing the western areas and succeeded in conquering the Ephesus alongside the Aegean Sea. Because of continuously growing force, Osman also moved towards the East and took areas alongside the Black Sea from the Byzantines. Now it was the time of the last campaign of the great Sultan Osman Ghazi, which took place in the city of Prussa, modern-day Bursa which is the beginning of the Ottoman Empire.

Siege of Bursa

As the Ottomans were expanding their territories, but there was another reason for the fall of Bursa. The historian Laonikos Chalkokondyles wrote that the Byzantines were indulged in the civil war during the period of 1321-1328 CE and Ottomans didn’t miss this opportunity. So, Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, while expanding the empire’s territory reached Sea of Marmara. The Ottoman’s host besieged Bursa in the north-west of Asia Minor. This was the first time that Ottomans were besieging a city and even having no expertise in such type of warfare, they conquered Bursa just after nine years.

Some historians claimed that Osman I died a natural death prior to the announcement of the final result of the siege. On the other hand, some claim that his son Orhan Ghazi commanded the final assault and brought the news of victory to his dying father Osman Ghazi.

Aftermath

After conquering Bursa, Orhan Ghazi, as the second Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, announced it as the first official Ottoman Empire’s Capital until the capture of Adrianople (modern-day Edirne) in 1362 CE. Because of this long period, Bursa became an important city in the history of the Ottoman Empire and also becoming the origin of the Ottoman architecture. Orhan Ghazi took great interest in the construction of buildings, markets, mosques, and caravansaries. Osman I and then his son Orhan Ghazi was buried in Bursa. Visitors from all over the World come to visit its historical places. In 1331 CE, a famous traveler Ibn Batuta also visited this city. His remarks for Sultan were,

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