Real history of Sultan Alaeddin Kayqubad 1 Bin Kaykavus
Sultan Alaeddin I was the Sultan of the Seljuk Empire of Rome. His reign lasted for seventeen years from 1220 to 1237 CE. His full name was Alaeddin Kayqubad Bin Kaykavus. He is famous with the name of Kayqubad I. Three Sultans of the Seljuk Empire were having same names as Alaeddin Kayqubad. But Kayqubad I who was the son of Giyaseddin Kaykhusraw I is famous because of his historical victories and he has even been included in the Turkish Season Dirilis Ertugrul. This character is portrayed by Burak Hakki So, in this article, we are going to tell you the true history of this great Sultan of the Seljuk Empire of Rome.
Early Life and Reign
Kayqubad I was born in 1188 CE. His birthplace is yet unknown. He was the son of Giyaseddin Kaykhusraw I, who was also the Sultan and reigned in the Seljuk Empire from 1192-1196 CE and then 1205-1211 CE till his death. He was educated by the Atabegs ( Officers who trained the Seljuk Princes) like Ayaba, Emir Seyfeddin, and Emir Bedreddin. He got skills in Turkish as well as Arabic, Persian, and Greek. Kaykhusraw I appointed his second son, Kayqubad I as the Melik (Governor) of Tokat, an important central Anatolian town.
In 1211 CE, after the death of Kaykhusraw I, Izzeddin Kaykaus I became his successor. Kayqubad I struggled to take the throne by preparing an alliance with Leo I, Armenian king and Tugrul Beg Muhammad, the ruler of Erzurum. On the other side, most of the Emirs supported Kaykaus I and Alaeddin Kayqubad had to take refuge in Ankara Castle. Kaykaus I after sieging this Castle captured him and imprisoned him in Minsar Castle, Malatya. Kaykaus died unexpectedly in 1220 CE and Alaeddin I ascended to throne after being released from captivity. He was selected by the honorable members and commanders like Seyfeddin Ayaba and Bahaeddin etc.
Like other Sultans, he also concentrated on the expansion of the Seljuk State. First of all, he conquered Kalonoros castle by defeating Armenians as they were facing the Eastern Latin. He furnished the city and named it Alaiye (Alanya). In 1227 CE, Alaeddin moved into Anatoliand by settling the Turkmens, he succeeded in defeating the ruler of Diyarbakir, Mesud Artuqids and then Ayyubuds. He also conquered the fortress of Hisn Mansur and included the Mengujek Emirate into his empire. Alaeddin I also had a naval force so he sent his navy in the command of Husameddin Coban to Crimea on the request of Seljuk merchants. Coban easily took the Sugdak city and built a mosque there.
After these victories, Alaeddin defeated Celaleddin Menguberti in the Battle of Yassi Cemen in 1230 CE and further moved towards East and took Erzurum, Ahlat and Lake Van. But this is considered a mistake because after this war Mongols way to enter Anatolia was opened. So, they invaded Sivas in the command of Gergoman Noyan and destroyed the region. When Alaeddin came to know that this attack is supported by the Georgian Queen Rosudan, he attacked Georgia. He conquered a lot of fortresses there but Queen asked for peace and married her daughter Tamar Gurcu Hatun to Alaeddin’s son Kaykhusraw II.
He was aware of the increasing power of Mongols so he strengthened the borders of Anatolia by reinforcing the eastern borders. Sultan Alaeddin Kauqubad I safeguarded Anatolia from the Mongols invasion before his death in 1237 CE. His relations with both Muslims and Non-Muslims were good. As when Alaeddin I returned after achieving victory in the Battle of Yassi Cemen, he was welcomed by Christian with their priests and Muslims with their Imams. In great generosity, he also gave them gifts and donations. He was also given the title of “Ulug Sultan”.
Alaeddin I and his Greek wife Mah Pari Hatun gave birth to only son, Kaykhusraw II. His second wife Ghaziya Hatun who was an Ayyubids princess gave birth to Izz al-Din and Rukn al-Din. After the death of Alaeddin I in 1237 CE, Kaykhusraw II became his successor in spite of Kayqubad’s favor towards Izz-al-Din.
Alaeddin I died in 1237 CE and buried in Kumbedhane hill mausoleum which was constructed by Sultan Mesud (1116-1157). Later a mosque was built on that hill. During his reign, he constructed castles, caravansary, and palaces which even still present today. Out of those, two are most famous as Kayqubad Palace in Kayseri and Kubadabad Palace in Beysehir.