Real History of Seljuk Sultan Ahmad Sanjar in Uyanis Buyuk Selcuklu Series
Ahmad Sanjar the last emperor of the Great Seljuk empire. He ruled Khorasan from 1097 to 1118 and then became the last ruler of the Seljuk empire (1118 till his death 1157). Born in 1085, Ahmad Sanjar knows for his bravery and constant efforts for a united empire. The town he was born is, was named Sanjar after him.
Ahmad Sanjar, the son of Sultan Malik Shah I. Sanjar is a Turkish name which meant he who pierces or he who thrusts. He participated in many wars against his brothers and nephews. To divert his victories, he was sent to govern Khorasan. This was his opportunity to serve the great Seljuk Empire. Sultan Malik Shah I didn’t know that Ahmad Sanjar was his son as he was brought by the grand vizier of the Seljuk empire. Sultan Ahmad didn’t want to create more problems for the empire by starting another war to be throned after the death of Sultan Malik Shah I.
With the ongoing instability in the leadership of the Seljuk Empire, the Empire was divided into three divisions. Emperor Sultan Ahmad defended Khorasan against all the external attacks and also struggled to protect the Muslims living in western Indian territories. To give him a warning, Hassan Sabbah sends him a message on a dagger which stated “Hassan Sabbah wants peace in his lands”. This left Ahmad Sanjar astonished and both of them respected each other and didn’t interfere in each other’s matters.
Malikshah II became the emperor of the Suljuke Empire after the death of Sultan Barkiyaruq. But Sultan Malikshah’s uncle Muhammad thought that he was very weak and it would be very difficult for Sultan Malikshah to defend the throne. With this thought, Muhammad deposed Sultan Ahmad and declared himself the great leader of the Seljuk empire. For the next ten years, the Seljuk empire was ruled by Sultan Muhammad. With his death, his son Mahmud II became the Sultan of the Seljuk empire. The enemies of the Seljuk empire continued to attack the Seljuk empire as they thought Sultan Mahmud II was young, inadequate, and uninformed.
Ahmed Sanjar took the responsibility of saving the great Seljuk Empire and declared himself the Great Seljuk Sultan in Khorasan. Mahmud II was not ready to accept this move and was very angry about this action of Sultan Ahmed Sanjar. The war started between them and Sultan Ahmed Sanjar destroyed Mahmud’s whole army. Mahmud II had to run to save his life. After sometime Mahmud II sent his vizier first and then himself to talk and present a peace agreement to Sultan Ahmed Sanjar. Ahmed accepted the peace agreement. With this agreement, Mahmud II declared that he accepts Sultan Ahmad Sanjar as the great Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and established an independent state in Iraq.
On the other hand, a new problem was ready to be faced by Sultan Ahmed Sanjar. Khwarezm Shah, an old affiliation of the great Seljuk empire for years, planned to go independent. They started capturing more land on their own which caused unrest in the region. This independent movement led the Turks to go independent as well. Ahmad Sanjar attacked the Turks. The reason for this attack was unrest caused and non-payment of due taxes. During this attack the Turks from Ahmad Sanjar’s army betrayed him. This was the point when Khwarezm Shah’s army attacked and Sultan Ahmad Sanjar lost the war. Ahmad Sanjar was made a war prisoner for the next three years.
During his captivity, his wife Turkan made all her efforts to run the empire but failed as the people continued to leave and people were also not paying their due taxes. During this time many people tried to be the next great Sultan but neither the army nor the viziers accepted anyone as their leader. In 1156 Turkan died and with her death, Sultan Ahmad escaped the prison and went to Khorasan to lead the empire once again. He started taking revenge from his enemies. Sultan Ahmad Sanjar died in 1157 and with his death, the Great Seljuk Empire came to an end as he didn’t have a son to rule the empire. His tomb is in Merv, which was damaged during the Mongol invasion.