Mongol Empire (1206–1368 CE)
As the twelfth century started, a lot of primeval and dominant dynasties, communities and domains expanded their territories ranging from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea. Even more, the Mongol mission was to provide a home to those who suffered 09 months long sever winds and winters. Temujin, named after a prisoner who was captured by his father, was turned orphaned in his young age. He along with his brother was also exiled from his tribe. He killed his older brother and then rescued his wife who was kidnapped. After suffering a lot, also the life of slavery, both Temujin and his brother came out as great contenders. They gathered many prairie tribes on their side. Jamika promoted the older prairie’s dignity, means holding the power forcibly and on the other hand Temujin step was to select people on merit. In 1206 CE, he defeated Jamika in a conclusive war gathering the many Mongol tribes. Temujin was given the name of Genghis Khan.
The gathering of these tribes wasn’t considered a considerable development by settled people of the world. The Mongols defeated the Tangut Empire who also demanded help and was refused by the Church in Jin dynasty who was esteemed by the Mongols from centuries and falsely considered that the condition would be the same even after Tengen’s conquest. Jin asked for honor but was attacked by the Mongolian force which was even less than the tenth part of the size of Jin’s army. At this point, the Mongols agility and wildness delivered an important role. They also became skillful at warfare. The king Jurchen escaped towards the South because his capital city was conquered. The fourth part of the Mongol Horde moved towards the East to overthrow Kar Khatai being conquered by Chieftain who once fled the Mongols.
They met with Corazon, arguably the richest and the most progressed Empire of that Era after the Mongols. Mongols sent their ambassadors to Corazon, who were injured and sent back. Genghiz the Great Khan got severely angry that he started killing of people, more than a million, most of them were civilians. In the West, the Mongols conquered Tenga and Jin started a rebellion. Ghenghis moved back to overthrow this rebellion. Ghenghis died during this campaign while he was 65 years old. As this news spread, all the conquest stopped and the Mongols attracted back to Mongolia, where in a huge session the Empire was handed over to his eldest son Oka, according to the desires of the Ghenghis Khan. Oka also died during his reign. The Church was conquered in the Jin dynasty and there started the campaign of Europe. But because of his death, this campaign was stopped and there was called another session.
His successor was an able ruler and administrator in his short reign which saw no major campaigns. Under Monk Khan, Persia and Mesopotamia became fully incorporated within the Mongol Empire. The sack of Baghdad during this campaign is considered to be one of the largest massacres in human history. His successor Kublai Khan conquered the Song Dynasty of southern China and brought the Empire to its greatest extent, however his reign was plagued with internal rebellion and a few failed campaigns that set the limits of the empire including two failed invasions of Japan. Although Khan of the entire Mongol Empire and name throughout Kublai Khan‘s long reign, he increasingly took on the role of a Chinese emperor while other areas of the Empire became increasingly independent and self-governing.
After his death, no Great Khan replaced him and the Empire divided. The Mongol Empire not only allowed, for the first time, good religious beliefs, knowledge, and ideas to spread unimpeded from the Pacific coast to Europe but also disease, the bubonic plague, killed as much as one-third of Europe’s population but also ravaging the Middle East and killing the Khan of Al Khanna and his sons leading to the collapse of that Empire into several smaller states. The Chagatai Khanate contracted but managed to exist until the 17th century.
The Golden Horde was a major player in Eastern European politics extracting tribute over a large area until overthrown by the Mosqueveidts in 1502 CE. Their successor states, the Crimean and Kazakh Knights would exist until the 18th and 19th centuries while the assimilated Mongol Chinese emperors were overthrown in 1368, while in Mongolia the descendants of the Great Khans returned to their nomadic lifestyle. The Timurid Empire is often considered a more loosely connected successor state of the Mongols.
At its greatest extent, it stretched from the Danube to the Sea of Japan (or East Sea) and from the Arctic to Camboja, covering over 24,000,000 sqkm , 22% of the Earth’s total land area, and held sway over a population of over 100 million people. It is often identified as the ” Mongol World Empire ” because it spanned much of Eurasia. However, the empire began to split following the succession war in 1260–1264. By 1294, the Mongol Empire had already fractured into four separate empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives.
- It is the largest contiguous empire in the history of the world, and the second largest empire in history, after the British Empire.
- Under the Mongols new technologies, various commodities and ideologies were disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia.